This recipe was devised by Nicolas Boussin, winner of the coveted title of Best Pastry Chef in France. Inspired by a burning log fire, but by no means confined to Christmas, this recipe has warm fiery overtones. This luxury chocolate cake costs less than £1 per slice net to make, but can retail for up to £4 per slice in a high-end bakery, café or patisserie. Each cake serves eight slices or can be sold whole.Makes four logs each measuring 9x26cm== Chocolate Cake (total weight 916g: ½ frame) ==80g Ground almonds165g Flour6g Baking powder40g Cocoa powder125g Eggs180g Sugar45g Trimoline (invert sugar)100g Whipping cream75g 66% dark chocolate100g ButterMethod1. Sift the flour, baking powder and cocoa powder together, then add the ground almonds.2. Melt the chopped chocolate and butter together. Combine the eggs, sugar and trimoline without beating and add the cream. Fold in the melted butter and chocolate and the sifted together dry ingredients.3. Pour the batter into a frame or mould and bake at 200°C for approximately 15 mins. Allow to cool.TIP: If time allows, cook the cake base the day before. This allows the starch to absorb the syrup more effectively when assembling.== Orange Compôte (total weight 388g) ==3 Oranges65g Brown sugarZest of 1 orange5g Lemon juice1.5cl Grand Marnier @ 50% vol extract3g StarchMethodPeel the orange and purée in a food processor, leaving some small pieces of oranges. Bring the purée, brown sugar and zest to a boil (see image A).2. Stir in the lemon juice and the starch, thinned with extract and bring back to the boil.3. Set aside and refrigerate.== For Syrup (total weight 130g) ==10cl light syrup (boil 1 litre water with 800g sugar)3cl Grand Marnier 50% vol extract== For Ganache (total weight 695g: ½ frame) ==300g Whipping cream150g Dark chocolate150g Milk chocolate40g Glucose20g Trimoline3.5cl Grand Marnier 50% vol extractMethod1. Bring the cream, glucose and trimoline to the boil and pour over the chopped chocolate.2. Add the extract, stir well to combine. Let cool.3. Lightly whip the ganache before pouring it into the frame (image B).TIP: add the cream to the dark chocolate first and mix slowly or the fat, cocoa and sugar will separate and the ganache will not be smooth. Then add the milk chocolate. Always use a combination of dark and milk chocolate, because the strong flavour of dark chocolate will overpower the distinct taste of the extract.== Icing (total weight 1,200g) ==600g Dark glazing paste (compound chocolate)400g Dark chocolate20cl Hazelnut oilMelt the chocolate and glazing paste and add the oil.Assembly and decoration1. Brush the cake with the syrup and spread the orange compote over the top. Place in the freezer (images C and D).2. Pour the lightly whipped ganache into a 27cm x 37cm frame, then top with the frozen cake. Press down to even out, so that the cake is flat. Place in the freezer for approximately one hour (it should be hard).3. Unmould the cake and cut to 9cm in width then place on a cooling rack and pour over the icing, so that the excess runs off. Sprinkle the sugar mixed with the orange zest all over the cake so that it sticks (image E). Decorate with a bundle of sticks and the dried orange rounds.== Orange Sticks (total weight 302g) ==For the pastry:100g Flour30g Ground hazelnuts70g Ground almonds1g Cinnamon1g Salt3.5cl Water40g Sugar2.5cl Grand Marnier 50% vol extractZest of 1 orangeFor outer coating:100g Brown sugarZest of 1 orangeMethod1. Bring the water, sugar and zest to the boil. Remove from the heat and add the extract.2. Combine the flour, ground nuts, cinnamon and salt and mix in the liquid. Allow to rest for 10 mins, then roll the pastry out very thinly and cut into very narrow strips.3. Roll in the orange zest and brown sugar mixture (image F).4. Arrange on a Silpat mat and bake at 160°C for 10 mins until the sticks are golden in colour. Let cool and tie into a bundle with a gold ribbon.TIP: No fat or egg is present in the sticks to keep them crispy.== Dried Orange Rounds ==Method1. Cut 1 orange into 2mm thick rounds. 2. Arrange on a baking sheet between two sheets of parchment paper and let dry in a 60°C oven for approximately three hours. 3. Store in an airtight container.TIP: Aim for 4-6% pure alcohol in the finished product. This will give good flavour delivery and enhance the taste of the other ingredients.
If you thought gas prices could not get any cheaper, just wait until 2016.Right before Christmas, the U.S. average for a gallon of gas dropped south of $2 for the first time in close to seven years, showing just how far pump prices have fallen in most regions of the country. More than half of all states are below the $2 milestone, based on GasBuddy.com data, and two-thirds of gas stations across America are selling regular gas for $1.99 a gallon or less.Road-trippers can expect more savings to come. The U.S. Energy Information Administration believes retail prices are on pace to average $2.43 a gallon this year and will slip a little further to an annual average of $2.36 in 2016, which is a buck less than the average price of gas in 2014.Diesel is also poised for another year of cheaper prices, as the EIA’s outlook calls for a 2016 average of $2.67, or about four cents below the current year. continue reading » 11SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr
The Ghana Football Association says it has no intentions of making amendments to its statutes with regards to individuals on its executive committee who are no longer affiliated to the teams that nominated them.This comes on the back of scenarios involving former Ash Gold CEO Fredrick Acheampong and subsequently George Amoako parting ways with the clubs that backed them for the position.According to the FA there isn’t appreciable reason to amend the current statutes on executive committee membership.They also insisted that doing so would lead to anarchy.“If you look at the forms that personalities fill to be vetted and to stand election it only requires you to have been nominated by a club not necessarily your club.“Indeed, if you want to stretch the matter and say that because a person has a left a club the person should be taken away from the executive committee it will lead to absurdity.“If there is a team owner who does not like somebody on the executive committee then the club will sack you.“Does that mean that whenever an executive committee member is sacked from a club we must hold fresh elections?It will lead to confusion and absurdity.If you look at our current rules in conjunction with that of CAF and FIFA when you win an election you stay the for the four years until elections are held again,” he told Citi Sports in an exclusive interview.
I think it’s a combination of things, but yes, he’s … Just like the Raiders against the Chiefs, you guys had an admirable performance with your mailbag questions this week.We’re talking draft, draft and more draft, as well as some Derek Carr, Jared Cook and Jon Gruden.Let’s [email protected]: Carr seems to be paying better past few weeks, although more conservatively, which seems to be what Gruden wanted. Do you get the sense that Carr is starting to click with Gruden’s offense?
2 February 2006London-based firm Blackstar Investors is to help fund black economic empowerment (BEE) deals in South Africa to the tune of £35-million (R380-million), signalling that foreigners are growing increasingly comfortable with investing in the country and in empowerment financing, Business Day reports.This is in sharp contrast to five years ago, when a first round of empowerment deals in mining battled to find foreign support.“It shows foreign understanding of empowerment and the risks and rewards that go with financing it has grown,” says Business Day.The company’s local arm, Blackstar Managers, is to identify opportunities for investment. Blackstar, listed on London’s alternative AIM market, is the first fund of its type and an “endorsement” of the BEE process by leading members of the international investment community, managing partner Andrew Bonamour told the newspaper.He said a number of institutions and hedge funds had invested in Blackstar, including Fidelity, Eton Park, Merrill Lynch Schroder and JP Morgan. The company was previously known as Illuminator plc.Bonamour told Business Day that international hedge funds had a mandate to invest a portion of their capital in emerging markets.BusinessMap director Reg Rumney said empowerment charters and the Department of Trade and Industry’s recently released empowerment codes had given foreigners a lot more investment certainty. Empowerment deals worth R40- to R50-billion were struck in 2005.“Certainly there is a role for private equity financing because there is an enormous amount of activity,” Rumney told Business Day.Blackstar expects to finalise its first transaction later in February, putting forward the capital needed by empowerment partners to buy a stake in a company operating in the resources sector.Bonamour said Blackstar was aiming at providing a percentage of financing required for empowerment deals up to about R25-million. Blackstar plans to play an active role in managing investments and will help its black partners with due-diligence studies and negotiations.SouthAfrica.info reporter
Olwethu Leshabane joins forces with Brand South Africa as a Play Your Part ambassador. The current Mrs South Africa First Princess is also an accomplished businesswoman and thought-leader in the entertainment and media industries. Olwethu Leshabane, Play Your Part ambassador and Mrs SA First Princess, is committed to developing the role women play in growing South Africa through her position as a Play Your Part ambassador, businesswoman and head of non-profit organisation Red Wings. (Image: Olwethu Leshabane, via Facebook)Play Your Part reporterBusinesswoman, wife and mother Olwethu Leshabane, crowned Mrs SA First Princess in October 2016, is one of our new additions to the Play Your Part ambassadors, who go above and beyond in supporting the development of South Africa and its people.Born in the coastal city of Port Elizabeth and raised in Pretoria, 26-year-old Leshabane juggles the demands of motherhood and business, as well as takes an active role in the development and empowerment of women.A brand strategist, Leshabane also runs and co-owns Stanford Media, the media arm of diversified investment holding company Stanford Group.EmpowermentLeshabane, a firm believer in the immense potential that women have to change South Africa and the world, can now use her status as Mrs SA First Princess to raise awareness about women’s health issues, encourage the education of young women, and empower women socially and economically.One of her major goals, she says, is “to use the crown to make a meaningful contribution towards significantly dropping the ever-increasing statistics of women being killed or abused in relationships and marriages by advocating for tolerance in marriages”.Her position as Mrs SA First Princess, coupled with her new role as a Play Your Part ambassador, means she is well-placed to make an even bigger impact in her chosen field.“Women need to be educated, included socially, have their health made a priority, and also be given a platform economically,” says Olwethu Leshabane.Red WingsIn 2014, Leshabane started The Red Wings Project, an organisation that collects sanitary pads to donate to underprivileged young women.She believes that feminine hygiene should not exclude those who cannot afford it, and hopes to get the government and private business to work hand-in-hand with her organisation to help address the issue.“Women need to be educated, included socially, have their health made a priority, and also be given a platform economically,” she says, further highlighting the need for women to be brought to the forefront of South Africa’s growth.
The printing press brought about the beginning of print as consumable media; however, it eventually assumed a centralized approach where owners of the newspapers and publishing houses controlled the flow of information. The gatekeepers maintained their position for quite some time until the advent of the internet.Today, the internet has made it possible for everyone to act as their own publisher and there is little censorship in the sharing of ideas. Apart from consumable media, the internet has decentralized a lot of industries including finance with the invention of digital money.We have decentralized distributed ledger technology.Distributed ledger technologies are not new. They have formed the backbone of cloud computing, and they provide a reliable solution for accounting and record keeping. A DLT is a protocol of interconnected machines in a network that has no central server disseminating information; rather, the connected devices agree with each other to reach a consensus for the sharing and storage of data.Thanks to the consensus protocol that all the machines agree upon, once the information is stored on the ledger, it would require the consensus of all the machines for that information to be changed. This provides immutability, security, and transparency in a trustless system.DLTs such as blockchain have made it possible for cryptocurrencies to function and thrive. Now, the concept of money is also getting decentralized through cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. This is possible since digital money can now have an immutable digital identity and thus solve the problem of double spending.Even though cryptocurrencies have a long way to go before they become universal legal tender, it goes without saying that this new technology holds a lot of potential for further decentralizing in the future.Final thoughts: the future is decentralized.As you can see, decentralization is essential for the advancement of civilization. Furthermore, decentralization through technologies like blockchain can bring about transparency and accountability in governance, finance, and communication.Sectors such as supply chain management, property rights, contractual agreements, and digital identity can benefit tremendously from decentralized technologies. Overall, it has become quite evident that blockchains have a role to play in good governance, global sustainability, and equitable economic development.The United Nations is already looking to leverage alternative financial mechanisms with the help of blockchain technology to support entrepreneurship and advance its sustainable development goals (SDGs).Programs by global organizations such as the SDGs can set the pace for broader levels of transparency, collaboration, and exchange across the globe (demyan, author, personal business). Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfaces What it Takes to Build a Highly Secure FinTech … Believe it or not, decentralization is nothing new. It first began with the social organization of ancient human societies. They lived together in small Neolithic decentralized communities of less than 100 people where everyone was accountable for one another.Small populations directly made management easier. Such small communities could easily trust one another, and the close relationships maintained by individuals made it hard for any of the group to get away with bad or selfish behavior. Tags:#Blockchain fintech#Decentalization#Statechannels#Trustlines Related Posts In his theory, Dunbar’s number limits the number of individuals in a community with whom we can maintain stable relationships. The theory of Dunbar’s number holds that 150 is the maximum number for any group of humans to maintain harmony as a community. Beyond that threshold, people will have difficulty keeping track of each other, leading to a collapse of society. Dunbar’s number explains why it became increasingly difficult for community members to trust one another and have healthy social interactions.According to Dunbar’s theory, the reason why 150 is the limit to healthy communal relationships among humans is that it takes effort for the individual to build networks beyond this number. An individual has to commit to giving more time to nurture personal relationships through gifts and favors that improve interdependence among members of a community.These relationships were vitally important as they enabled individuals to pay back in kind during trade and other social interactions. Therefore, establishing a sense of trust and security, according to Dunbar’s theory, was achievable with a small community. However, above the 150 marks, communities required a centralized authority to keep track of who was trustworthy and who was not. To resolve this, the monarch provided a reliable borrower of money that was used to pay the army for the protection of the subjects. It also offered a judicial system for the benefit of the subjects.Back to governance.Therefore, out of the need for armed protection, empires emerged. The power that was previously controlled by wealthy individuals became institutionalized into political and religious groups. The political groups provided security as well as a reliable trust system for trade and the flow of information.As you can see, throughout history, agrarian societies were marked with extremes of rigid social mobility and social classes. Even though the specific point in time where the development of human government started is not clear, studies show that the development of irrigation technologies for agricultural projects was a catalyst in the developing need for governance.David Christian puts it vividly in his book ‘Maps of Time’ where he says “Farming populations gathered in larger and denser communities, interactions between different groups increased and the social pressure rose until, in a striking parallel with star formation, new structures suddenly appeared, together with a new level of complexity. Like stars, cities, and states reorganized and energized the smaller objects within their gravitational field.”Ultimately, the land became the primary source of wealth; the development of social hierarchy based on land ownership was inevitable. This gave rise to the governing class and the masses. In some areas, tribal chiefs were elected by various rituals that tested an individual’s leadership and military strength while in other cases a group of elders acted as the ruling class of the community. Eventually, the landowning strata became a combination of religion, the government, and the military. These three social elements justified enforcement of ownership, leading to a rigid stratification of the societies as seen in the Caste system of India and other examples.The pros and cons of centralization.There is a clear-cut difference between centralization and decentralization. Already, we have seen the importance of a centralized system in its role to create order, reliability, and trust.But, as society became more complex, the structure of centralized societies evolved as well. Centralized governing structures developed better levels of consistency that were more cost-efficient and fair to all. Waste was eliminated, and the ruling class was able to focus on long-term planning and decision-making to the benefit of the whole community. Furthermore, a mix between decentralization and centralization was established to enable flexibility and peak performance of development projects.Other advantages of centralization that stood out included:With a centralized authority in place, cost of production eventually reduced due to standardized procedures of trade and productionUniformity in action was also achieved thanks to the control of central administrationImproved quality of work was also attainedFinally, with direct supervision and control, centralization enabled better coordination in society.Overall, the main advantage of adopting a centralized system was and still is efficiency. Decisions are made quickly in a centralized system, and there is little to zero duplication of roles. Plus, as a result of centralized authorities, societies can become reasonably stable, consistent and predictable, especially when it comes to projects that involve the collective. Besides, it’s also easy to establish control and accountability in case things don’t work out as expected.But of course, such advantages don’t come without drawbacks. While there are definite positives, that have added to the rise and success of centralized systems, most of them also have many pitfalls that sometimes outweigh the good to a significant extent.Some of the shortcomings of centralization include the following issues.Abuse of powerOne of the biggest downside to centralization is its assumption that the top leadership always has the interests of the subjects at heart.All through history, it has been shown that a centralized system of authority attracts the worst of characters or rather turns good characters to bad.One notorious example is how Hitler managed to assert his autocracy that led to a massive genocide of the Jewish community. Even though Germany at the time had a democracy, the state was characterized by a weak democracy that quickly gave way to Hitler’s autocracy.Other examples of autocracy as a result of centralized political structures include the Roman emperors who declared themselves gods, not to mention Napoleon Bonaparte who took power, declaring himself emperor.The reality is that throughout the history of civilization, centralized forms of governance always end up with autocratic styles of leadership and as John Emerich Edward Dalberg Acton (1834–1902) would put it, “Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely.”Slow down inefficiencyAs centralized systems develop further, they experience a reduction in the level of efficiency. For starters, since most of the decisions are made at the top to affect the subjects at the bottom of the pyramid, there is bound to be a disconnect that results in resentment by the subordinates. Plus, since the top leadership is tasked with making the decisions, the entire approach can be overwhelming, and thus the quality and speed of arbitration eventually goes down.CensorshipApart from the abuse of power, and the eventual reduction in efficiency, another disadvantage of centralization is censorship. In the political sphere, China has had the most centralized form of government in the world. Centralization of authority was first introduced in China during the Qin Dynasty. The dynasty entailed a consistent effort to concentrate authority to the Qin government.The first Emperor, Qin Shi Huang, managed to control his territories by setting up new laws and regulations. However, even though the military and government of ancient China thrived, the situation escalated into a high level of censorship. Currently, as a result of a long history of extremely centralized forms of government, China has no freedom of the press and information is continuously filtered by the government to control people’s perceptions and ideas.Economist.Com reports that China’s internet is the world’s most centralized and most censored. Furthermore, the report shows that over 2 million content controllers are working in China’s internet industry today. Plus, some Beijing based tech companies are working to enroll in blockchain technology to come up with a technological world domination system.Just in the same way the internet has been used as a tool to exert centralized censorship, so has education. While education is supposed to teach children critical thinking and evaluation of information in the form of intellectual debates and arguments, countries like Iran are banning the teaching of English in order to limit “Western Cultural Invasion.”As is evident with the above examples, any form of centralization will lead to a concentration of all the power at the central top point in the pyramid. Just like a pyramid, the larger the base (i.e. the larger the number of commoners Cat the bottom), the larger the power concentrated at the tip of the pyramid, hence the greater the risk of anarchy. You can almost always guarantee that when there are no systems of checks and balance on the ruling elite, the ruling elite will become bad actors in the system and censorship will prevail.Why decentralization is important.The above examples, among other bodies of evidence, highlight the problems caused by highly centralized systems. If left unchecked, centralized systems will lead to unbalanced exertion of control by the select few elites. For this reason, decentralization, a process that distributes and delegates decision-making and planning away from central authority, is essential.Throughout history, and even in the contemporary world, the concept of decentralization has been applied in order to improve the shortcomings of centralization. Right from the start, western civilization has been marked by instances where mankind has attempted to break down the pillars of centralization. Some of the primary examples include the following cases.The birth of democracy.Democracy is mostly viewed as the bedrock upon which decentralization thrives. In fact, the entirety of western civilization is founded on first attempts made in Athens to bring power to the people. Granted, the Athens approach was still centralized in that only a select group of individuals could vote in a leader.However, it was a significant advancement towards decentralization compared to a system that placed the fate of an entire civilization on one individual. The concept of democracy has been impaired by issues of corruption and lack of efficiency.However, since its invention in 508 BC in Athens, it remains one of the noblest endeavors in human civilization. This system of governance has resulted in great artistic and scientific innovations as well.Printing press. Follow the Puck Has an intensive experience in the field of real business (he is an owner of one of the national retail chains) and trading on traditional and crypto stocks. His financial education allows him to analyze and predict the situation, and develop new disrupting products for the future. Max is an ideologist and visioner of the decentralized credit network, economy, and payment tools expert. Max DemyanCEO at GEO Protocol Centralized (Command & Control)The idea of a ruler dictating the day to day lives of their subjects came about as a result of seeking solutions to developing problems. The agrarian revolution resulted in increased food production and as communities grew larger, it simply became impractical to maintain order without a central authority to oversee social interactions.According to conventional views, it was after the Neolithic period that cities began to form. Even with the lack of evidence on the conditions that gave rise to towns and cities, theorists speculate that the growing human population and the benefits that come with dense settlements must have contributed to the formation of early cities and towns.According to Childe, it was during this time that humans started living together in organized communities. Most researchers agree that no single factor triggered the Neolithic Revolution; however, scientists theorize that perhaps the end of the Ice age 14,000 years ago must have led to climate change with the earth getting warmer hence triggering the agrarian revolution. The aftermath was increasing advancement towards agriculture, marked by a growing network of interactions among human beings that necessitated centralized social structures.It is believed that farming immigrants replaced foragers and increased food production, resulting in higher population density per unit of land, hence increased development of towns and cities. Adding to this idea is Paul Bairoch’s book titled Cities and Economic Development. He argues that agriculture appears to be a necessary precursor to the formation of towns and cities.After all, at the time, living in dense populations as opposed to sparsely populated communities had clear advantages including:Reduced costs of transportationInteraction and exchange of ideasLarge local marketsEasy sharing of natural resourcesEasy access to amenities such as security, access to running water and sewage disposalHow did empires emerge?Well, as communities evolved to have increasing dependence on agriculture, people started learning how to produce a variety of products. For instance, they learned how to improve labor intensity through the use of animals. Cultivation increased, and they began to produce wool, milk and other products. This increase in food and resources further increased the population from about 6 million in 8,000 BC to approximately 50 million in 3,000 BC.Larger communities resulted in the increased complexity of disputes that had to be solved. And, with more interactions, some individuals found better and faster ways to trade and acquire wealth.Therefore, as a need for better organizational structures arose, chiefs and village elders took up the responsibility of facilitating trust and accountability in the growing communities.Eventually, social structures wholly changed and as the complexity of trade increased, a small group of the population became increasingly wealthy and powerful. The idea of money gained traction as people devised new ways to exchange farm products.The evolution of a monetary system.One of the most essential modern inventions that came about as a result of the agrarian revolution is the idea of money. At the time, history reveals that the barter trade was the most common mode of commerce. Eventually, however, the drawbacks of bartering as a medium of exchange increased and traders started using commodity money such as cows, salt, wine, and precious stones.But even commodity money proved to be an unsustainable idea. There was also a period where metallic money became popular among early traders as a form of currency, but due to issues of trust, weight, and purity, a new concept of money was needed.For this reason, kingdoms emerged as a way of giving legitimacy to paper money in the form of IOU contracts to the monarch.The rise of government.It is not clear how monarchs came to be, but it can be assumed that early communities needed better management of projects like irrigation and building of surplus food storage facilities. Robin Dunbar, an award-winning anthropologist, an evolutionary psychologist believes that beyond the amenities that are accessible in cities and towns, one of the most significant contributing factors to the move from decentralized societies to centralized ones was the need for armed protection against neighboring groups.Dunbar’s Number Decentralized (peer — to — peer)(Image courtesy of Johann Gevers)As a result, the social structure that existed before the agrarian revolution consisted of a decentralized society where interactions were between individuals living in a community with a limited hierarchical structure.There was no need for rulers to govern and control interactions since everyone was self-reliant.However, as communities began to focus more on agriculture as a means of food production, suddenly there was more food and communities grew from small groupings of 100 people to larger societies of several hundred people.Neolithic Age: the birth of the Agrarian RevolutionHistory is not precisely clear on what triggered the agrarian revolution. However, as communities became more sophisticated, the Neolithic Age became marked by a period of transition from small nomadic groups of hunters and gatherers to larger settlements of early agricultural civilizations.History also reveals that this period started in the fertile crescent of the Middle East. This is where humans first came up with farming tools around 10,000 BC, shortly after the Stone Age. Some scholars call this period the New Stone Age.This is because during this period, even though humans had just started practicing agriculture, they still depended on stone tools and hoes to eke out an existence.Even in the early stages of the agrarian revolutions, communities were only able to sustain a small population that practiced hunting and gathering as a subsidy to their farming practices.V. Gordon Childe (an Australian archeologist who coined the term Neolithic Revolution) mentions that this period coincided with the separation of the Neolithic people from their Paleolithic ancestors who were known for their rudimentary chipped stone tools. Just as new technologies such as the internet (in present times) created a shift from old social norms to new ones, so did agriculture.But how did these small communities transform into hierarchical complex societies dependant on centralized forms of government?Formation of cities and towns. Blockchain – Impending Revolution in Glob… Early Press, etching from Early Typography by William SkeenCompared to medieval Europe, the world today is far more knowledgeable with a wealth of information at arm’s reach. This was not always the case. Before the invention of the printing press, the flow of information was controlled by a highly centralized system led by religious leaders and the government.For instance, religious texts such as the Bible could only be read by religious leaders who the people trusted for the right interpretation. Thanks to the printing press, information that was previously under the control of the elite, including the Bible, was finally easily accessible. Using technologies such as the pigeon post, ideas were shared around the world and the centralized control over the flow of information collapsed.Even though the owners of the few available printing presses at the time could still exert control over information at the time, the rise of libraries enabled decentralization of knowledge and power.Internet.
India will clash against their southern neighbours Sri Lanka in what will be the last group match for both the teams at the World Cup 2019 in Leeds on Saturday. Having already qualified for the semi-finals, India will look to fine-tune their still troublesome middle-order, while on the other hand, Sri Lanka who are already out of contention for a place in the last-4 would look to bow out on a high by beating their opponents at Headingley. History is also on SL’s side but recently India have held the upper hand.Sri Lanka are one of the few teams in the World Cup 2019 to have a favourable win-loss against India in the history of the tournament. Of the 8 times the two sides have faced each other in World Cups, Sri Lanka have emerged winners on 4 occasions to India’s 3 with one match yielding no result.Sri Lanka stunned India in their very first meeting in the tournament in Manchester in 1979 – a time when SL were still an Associate member of the ICC. Sunil Wettimuny, Roy Dias and Duleep Mendis hit half-centuries before India collapsed from a comfortable 119/2 to 191-all out to remain winless in the tournament. Their next meeting during the 1992 World Cup was washed out due to rain after just 2 balls being bowled.During the 1996 World Cup, Sri Lanka reaffirmed their dominance over India by beating them twice, including the infamous win in the semi-final.Playing hosts to the World Cup, India must have fancied their chances going into the semi-final against Sri Lanka at Eden Gardens and their joy knew no bounds when Javagal Srinath removed the explosive opposition openers Sanath Jayasuriya and Romesh Kaluwitharna for scores of 1 and 0 respectively. Impressive rearguard efforts from Roshan Mahanama and Arjuna Ranatunga boosted the Sri Lankan total to 251/8 which still looked a chasuble score for the Indians.advertisement And when India were sitting comfortably at 98/1 with superstar Sachin Tendulkar going great guns, victory seemed preeminent for India. Though what followed was nothing short of being one of the greatest embarrassment in the sport’s history.As soon as Sachin was dismissed, caught down the leg-side of Jayasuriya, the Indian innings went into a downwards spiral losing 6 more wickets for the addition of just 22 runs. The crowd at Eden Gardens erupted and started throwing bottles on the ground along with burning seats and paper cuttings in the stadium. The unruly scenes prompted match referee Clive Lloyd to award the match to Sri Lanka as the conditions weren’t deemed fit to complete the match marking it one of the rare such occasions.India had to wait for 3 more years too earn their 1st ever win over Sri Lanka at a World Cup when Sourav Ganguly (183) and Rahul Dravid (145) helped India post 373/6 before winning the match easily by 157 runs.India continued their winning run against Sri Lanka in the 2003 edition handing them a drubbing by 183 runs after bundling them out for a mere 109.Sri Lanka exacted sweet revenge of these heavy defeats when the 2 sides next met in the 2007 World Cup. Incidentally, the defeat also meant that India crashed out of the tournament having failed to beat Bangladesh earlier.The teams’ subsequent meeting at the 2011 World Cup final is already etched into cricket lovers’ memories as MS Dhoni’s match-winning six off Nuwan Kulasekara won India their 2nd ever title victory and consigned their opponents to the status of runner-up.Since then India have dominated Sri Lanka in ODIs and it shouldn’t be a surprise if India choose to try out all the possible permutations and combinations in their playing XI for Saturday before playing the all-important semi-final.Also Read | What happened last time India met Sri Lanka in World Cup?Also Read | With eyes on top spot, India take on Sri Lanka in final group gameAlso See:
The holidays came early yesterday for kids in the LA’s BEST After School Enrichment Program at Pacoima Charter School, when Ashley Tisdale made a surprise visit!Ashley Tisdale Visits LA’s BEST After School Enrichment Program at Pacoima Charter SchoolDuring her time with the kids, Ashley helped them make holiday ornaments, signed autographs and spoke with the kids about the importance of giving during the holidays. She then presented each child with a PUMA backpack stuffed with shoes and other goodies including PUMA gift cards meant to be spent on presents for loved ones. The kids were overjoyed to see their favorite High School musical star and were excited to say that she helped them make their holiday ornaments!