Come August, the state’s peanut growers will either be reaping the payoff of their spring efforts to control for tomato spotted wilt virus, or they will be planning ways to preventatively manage this persistent virus with recommendations from University of Georgia scientists.TSWV is a disease that was first discovered in the U.S. in Texas in the 1970s. It did not become a significant disease in Georgia until the 1990s. Since that time, TSWV has become a major issue on a number of important agricultural crops throughout the Southeast, including peanut, pepper, tomato and tobacco. TSWV is transmitted by thrips, which are tiny piercing-sucking insects. Thrips can cause mild to significant damage on their own accord, but their effective transmission of TSWV makes this insect a priority for peanut growers to preventatively control each year.Thrips are tiny winged insects that feed chiefly on plants. Many species damage cultivated plants by either sucking the sap or transmitting viral plant diseases. Thrips reach a maximum length of about half an inch. Most have two pairs of long, narrow, hair-fringed wings.“Thrips are the only insect known to transmit this virus,” explained Mark Abney, associate professor of peanut entomology in the UGA College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. “Growers can see disease symptoms at any time in the season, but symptoms are often most obvious beginning in August. By that time it’s too late, because most of the virus transmission occurred back in the spring,” cautioned Abney.As peanut plants emerge in the spring, they are small and susceptible to both thrips damage and TSWV. Direct thrips-feeding injury can stunt plant growth and reduce yields. The symptoms of TSWV are stunting, yellowing of foliage and characteristic “ring spots” on the leaves.“I will not be surprised if we see an increased incidence of TSWV in peanut this year because lower seed quality and cool, wet conditions at planting have led to poor seed germination and a lot of ‘skippy stands.’ Low seedling density and gaps between plants increase the risk of TSWV infection, though the reason is not completely understood,” said Abney.Abney says growers should develop a thrips and TSWV management plan prior to planting peanuts every spring.“Once the seed furrow is closed, few thrips management options and no TSWV management options remain. The most important tool a grower has to reduce TSWV is plant resistance,” explained Abney.In Georgia, the majority of peanut acreage is planted to runner-type cultivars. The most commonly grown runner-type cultivar is ‘Georgia-06G’. While there are many other cultivars with TSWV resistance, none have consistently performed better than ‘Georgia-06G’ across a wide range of growing conditions. ‘Georgia-06G’ is a high-yielding peanut that grows well even in adverse conditions.An in-furrow insecticide is an important part of a thrips management program. Growers have a choice of insecticide active ingredients if reducing thrips injury is the only goal, but phorate, an organophosphate, is the only insecticide proven to reduce thrips injury and the incidence of TSWV. Phorate induces host defense responses in peanut that result in lower TSWV infection rates. Conversely, the insecticide causes phytotoxicity in peanut that some growers find undesirable.“Thrips will be present in almost every peanut field every year and TSWV is still with us, but decisions about insecticide use are ultimately up to the grower,” Abney said.Planting date can also have a major impact on thrips pressure and risk of disease transmission. “Planting early can help growers get more yield, but it places them at greater risk for injury from thrips and TSWV,” explained Abney.Before effective TSWV management tactics were developed by researchers at UGA, planting prior to May 10 was extremely risky. The combination of TSWV-resistant cultivars with cultural management practices means that growers can now plant earlier and still avoid severe losses from TSWV.“Nevertheless, we don’t want growers to put all their eggs in one basket. A good strategy is to plant some peanuts early, utilizing as many thrips/TSWV management tools as possible, and plant the remainder of the crop after May 10 when the likelihood of infection is lower,” Abney said.The virus can only survive in living plant tissues or its thrips host. During winter months, the virus survives primarily in winter annual weeds and will return in the spring as thrips migrate and start feeding on newly planted crops.“Unfortunately, you can’t really reduce the amount of TSWV by managing weeds or other alternate hosts because there are just too many weeds in the environment. So, we don’t recommend developing a weed management program to control TSWV because it’s just biologically not possible,” Abney explained.Other production practices that affect thrips and TSWV are row pattern and tillage. Peanuts can be planted in either single- or twin-row patterns. The more rapid ground coverage obtained in twin-row plantings can be advantageous for many reasons, not the least of which is a proven reduction in the incidence of TSWV compared to single rows. Residue left on the soil surface where reduced tillage systems are employed can significantly reduce thrips pressure compared to conventionally tilled peanut.“The development of current thrips and TSWV management recommendations is a great example of how people have worked across disciplines to create effective programs that rely on the integration of a variety of cultural and chemical tools to combat a severe economic pest,” said Abney. “It takes a lot of trial and error, but we’ve really come a long way to provide growers the best up-to-date information to help them navigate this challenging pest-virus relationship.”To learn more about thrips and TSWV, visit site.extension.uga.edu/peanutent.
6257 Broken Hills DriveMore from news02:37Purchasers snap up every residence in the $40 million Siarn Palm Beach North9 hours ago02:37International architect Desmond Brooks selling luxury beach villa1 day agoThe four-bedroom, three-level house has a European influence with crystal chandeliers, elegant wallpaper and cathedral ceilings.The couple said they renovated the home and landscaped the property but the biggest challenge was creating intimate spaces. 6257 Broken Hills Drive, Hope IslandWITH a touch of vogue and splash of European influence, this Sanctuary Cove home oozes elegance from the moment you step into the foyer.A few indulgent dinners and a couple of evening walks spent at Hope Island swayed Brisbane couple Ivan and Carmen Suto to move into the gated estate. 6257 Broken Hills Drive“We used to drive from Brisbane to have dinner at Hope Island quite regularly,” Mrs Suto said.“Ivan and I were really attracted to the area, especially the roads at Sanctuary Cove which are lined with Canary Island Palms. It gives it such a beautiful feel when you drive in, as if you’re in Hollywood.“We always wanted to live here and we have family on the Gold Coast so it was a plan waiting to happen. It has been seven years since we moved and I still admire the palms every day.” 6257 Broken Hills DriveThe 18-month long makeover included fresh paint, modern roller-blinds and a new kitchen.Marble features in the main bedroom and a freestanding bath adds a touch of luxury. 6257 Broken Hills Drive“We created the fourth bedroom by closing up one of the doorways and making a wardrobe out of it,” Mrs Suto said.“There was a lot of innovating when we bought this house.”Mrs Suto has turned the fourth bedroom into her hobby room but said her favourite area in the home was the mezzanine styled lounge room. 6257 Broken Hills Drive“We had the option of closing this up to make it a cinema room but we really liked the idea of having a separate space away from the kitchen.”An extension was added in the study and a hallway was turned into a walk-in-pantry. 6257 Broken Hills DriveThe garden includes Canary Island Palms as seen around Sanctuary Cove. “Ivan and I still visit our favourite restaurant at Hope Island, but the drive is much easier,” Mrs Suto said.
Yet, when the Serbian performs in the manner he did on Wednesday night, helping to keep Shakhtar away from United’s goal for long periods, it does seem better times are on the horizon. “You don’t want to make mistakes two or three times,” he said. “That is the main thing. Once you have made one, don’t do it again. “That is the thing we have to learn. “The last 10 days have been tough. We lost concentration at certain times, which we shouldn’t have allowed. “We are doing everything we can. We just have to be patient.” If there is a substantial positive to take from such a difficult period it is that the spirit in what is acknowledged to be one of the tightest dressing rooms in the Premier League remains strong. A number of individuals, Shinji Kagawa and Wilfried Zaha spring immediately to mind, may have cause to be irritated, but a lid is being kept on any frustration. There is also an acknowledgement – as Moyes pointed out – that United have already faced three of their major rivals, and two of them away from home. Similar sentiments were expressed a week ago when, fresh from beating Liverpool in the Capital One Cup, the visit of West Brom to Old Trafford was supposed to launch a belated start to the campaign. Instead, United are staring down the barrel of a third straight top flight defeat for the first time since December 2001, dumped in the bottom half of the table, with a long climb ahead of them. “I think this is a more important game,” said Vidic of the weekend trip to Wearside. “We need to get a few wins in a row. “The situation is not that bad compared to the teams who you would think will also be competing for the title, or at least the ones who were the favourites. “We know we have to improve. We know we have to work hard and stick together on the pitch. “We did that against Shakhtar and hopefully we can do that over the next few weeks because with that kind of mentality we have a good chance to do well.” Moyes’ team selection will be interesting given United appeared to have the right balance in Wayne Rooney’s absence. Yet Rooney has undoubtedly been United’s star performer this season and with five goals in his last five games will be an automatic choice if he recovers from the shin injury sustained in training on Tuesday. Wednesday night’s Champions League draw with Shakhtar Donetsk falls firmly in the first category, both for the battling qualities United displayed and, importantly, the result, which was the first time in five attempts any English team had avoided defeat in Europe’s most prestigious club competition at the Donbass Arena. Yet, when United head to Sunderland on Saturday evening, they will do so as a team for whom anything but victory would be a calamity following those pitiful Premier League performances against Manchester City and West Brom. “We have to accept it has not been a great start,” said Vidic. “We have not been getting the performances we would have liked and we also have to be realistic enough to accept we have made some mistakes. “This team has a lot of potential and we are working really well. “Sometimes the results don’t come. Sometimes the performances don’t come. But I am really positive. “The most important thing is to defend right. If we defend well, I think we have a really good chance to win trophies.” The mistakes to which Vidic refers are individual errors rather than fundamental blunders by a new management structure any group of players would take time to adjust to following Ferguson’s departure. Nemanja Vidic’s faith in the quality of Manchester United’s squad has not been shaken by their awful start to the Premier League campaign. The tenure of David Moyes has been a curious affair to date. Of the nine matches United have played under Sir Alex Ferguson’s successor, it could be argued three were impressive, a further four somewhere between decent and average, the remaining two absolutely atrocious. Press Association
Two Danielstown Village, Essequibo Coast brothers found themselves on the wrong side of the law when they reportedly purchased stolen items.Ricardo and Winston Chester appeared before Magistrate Sunil Scarce on Wednesday at the Anna Regina Magistrate’s Court.According to the prosecution, between April 15 and April 18, 2016 at Danielstown, they received from Albert Bharrat a 32-inch Samsung TV and two gas cylinders knowing same to be stolen. The items are valued at 2,700 and are the property of Sarwan Kumar.The two men pleaded not guilty to the charge. Ricardo Chester told the Court that Bharrat approached him and asked him to pay a taxi for him and in return, he asked to keep the items.Winston Chester on the other hand told the Court he had no knowledge that the items were stolen.The VC, who was also in Court, told the Magistrate he had settled the matter with the two brothers. Magistrate Scarce cautioned the brothers about the seriousness of the offence and told them to be vigilant next time. The case was then dismissed and the brothers walked out of the courtroom, free men.Meanwhile, Bharrat and a friend of his, Pollard (only name given), appeared before Magistrate Scarce on a break and enter and larceny charge.The charge states that between April 15 and 16, 2016, the Richmond Village duo broke and entered the dwelling place of Kumar thereby stealing the Samsung TV, gas cylinders, a transformer, a pair of long pants, an electrical iron and groceries, valued in total 4,200.Both Bharrat and Pollard pleaded not guilty to the charge. Police Prosecutor Haimraj Ramsewack informed the Court that some of the items were recovered when Police swooped down on the two brothers that purchased several of the items. The VC informed the Court that the parents of the duo pleaded with him to settle the matter and he has agreed. He then asked the Magistrate to dismiss the matter.Magistrate Scarce, in cautioning the men about their behaviour, said that it has become a norm for Bharrat’s parents to settle matters of this nature for him. As such, he placed Bharrat and Pollard on a bond to keep the peace; any breach of the conditions of the bond will result in jail time.